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Verbs and Verb Conjugation

In Estonian, the present, simple past, present perfect and past perfect are distinguished. Future tense can also be constructed using saama, similar to the use of werden in german; this is more common in spoken language and in the press.

Verbs are conjugated in the active and passive voice; indicative, imperative, conditional and indirect mood; and in the affirmative and negative form.

Since the verb inflections clearly express the person, the personal pronouns do not generally need to be used, except in the third person of the verb olema 'to be'.

In Estonian-language dictionaries, the verbs are presented after a form of the infinitive. In the case of the verb '(to) love', for instance, the supine is armasta-ma, and infinitive armasta-da.